Graphic Design Principles 1

Fall 2017 | COMD1100_D108 | Prof. Spevack

Class 30 | Final Critique

December 18, 2017

student field trip photo

COMD1100 at New Lab

LAST DAY! All work is due.

  • This is a critique class.
  • All students are expected to participate. (Last chance to boost your final grade!)
  • You will not have time during class to complete work. All work is due on arrival.

Discussion / Critique

Grades

  • Submit all work, including all parts of Project #6 and any make up/reworked projects.
  • Make sure your blog posts have all required content from Projects 1-6.
  • Grades will be posted by December 27th.

Work Pickup

  • Check this website and your City Tech email to find out when to pickup your physical projects.

Homework

  • Take a field trip once a week and create something (anything) everyday.
  • Please keep in touch!
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Class 29 | Color Harmony Inventory

December 14, 2017

What’s DUE?

  • All parts of Project #5 are due!

Lab

Review PROJECT #6 guidelines very closely and complete:

  1. Phase 1: Discover
  2. Phase 2: Proportional Color Inventory
  3. Phase 3: Final Freestudy– EXTRA CREDIT (directly based on the Proportional Color Inventory)

Questions?

Homework

Next class is the LAST class! All work is due!

  1. PROJECT #6
    • Phase 1-4 (posted to the Class Blog)
  2. Review the Vocabulary, all six Project guidelines, and Understanding Your Grade.
  3. This is your last chance to complete or rework your projects to improve your grade. You will not have time in class.
  4. Materials Needed:
    • a portfolio to transport your work home.
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Class 28 | Color Harmony

December 11, 2017

Critique

  • Present your Project #5 Freestudy work (complete or in-progress) for review.

Discussion (15 min)

Color Harmony:

A palette of hues, shades, tints or tones (saturation) is used to produce pleasing color relationships to engage the viewer and it create a sense of order in the visual experience. Successful, harmonious use of color creates dynamic equilibrium and helps to unify a composition.

For our final project (Project #6) we will look at formulas for creating harmonious color palettes, starting with Tonal Progressions.

Tonal Progression

  • Grayscale: progression from black to white in the absence of hue
  • Shade: progression of a hue produced by the addition of black
  • Tint: progression of a hue produced by the addition of white
  • Tone: progression of a hue produced by the addition of gray
  • Complements: progression of a hue produced by the addition of its complement
  • Gradient: A gradient or graduated fill used in a digital application is a color fill that gradually blends from one color to another.

    gradient in Illustrator bittbox.com

    gradient in Illustrator — bittbox.com

References:

  • Color Harmonies– Interactive Tool
    Experiment with the Monochromatic and Complements buttons.
  • IPad app: Blendoku

Color Relationships

  • Analogous: colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel (example: violet, blue-violet, red-violet). They have the shortest interval and the most harmonious relationship because three or four neighboring hues always contain a common color that dominates the group.
  • Complements: using colors opposite on the color wheel. This relationship often produces visual tension, shock, or electricity (as we observed in our color interaction studies). This is often the least harmonious color relationship. A palette using complements should be “harmonized” with variations in value and saturation. (example: red and green when reduced to chromatic grays soften the effect of simultaneous contrast).
  • Near-Complements: using a color and the color adjacent to its complement. This relationship softens the visual tension produced by using straight complements. (example: red and yellow-green)
  • Split-Complements: based on the triad system, using one color plus two colors on either side of its complement. (example: orange and blue-violet & blue-green). This color scheme adds more variety and an opportunity for a specific accent or focus, if used in unequal proportions.

Proportion/Hierarchy/Dominance

In a composition you may wish to have certain colors that are harmonious and share visual qualities (similar value, hue, saturation), and others may need to assert their independence and stand out. These would have less in common with the other colors in the palette (different in hue, saturation and/or value) and would create an accent or focal point. It’s important, when choosing a color scheme to resist the temptation to use all colors in equal volume. Unequal proportions are more interesting and aesthetically pleasing.

  • Dominant color: color with the largest proportional area – often the ground.
  • Sub-Dominant color(s): colors with less proportional area- they are often analogous colors or variants in tint or shade of the dominant color.
  • Accent color: colors with a small proportional area, but offer contrast due to variation in saturation, value or hue.

chriswarecolorinventory

References:

LAB

Meetings:

  • If you are not up to date with your work, have an INC grade for any project, or are missing any Phase #4: Deliver posts, please meet with the professor to review your grades.

Homework

Download PDF

Class 27 | Color Interaction Free-Study

December 7th, 2017

DUE:

Critique

Present one of the following:

  • Project #5: Phase1 : Color Interaction Research
  • Project #5: Phase 2: Color Interaction Studies
  • Project #4 : Freestudy
  • Field Trip thoughts/reflections

LAB

Free-Study – Paired Color Identities with Simultaneous Contrast

Color Interaction Freestudy

Color Interaction Freestudy

OVERVIEW:

Create Paired Color Identities that demonstrate Simultaneous Contrast and an exploration of Color Meaning. Use color and image to represent yours and your partner’s personality. The final work should demonstrate how one hue can have two different identities depending on what hue it is surrounded by. Do this by exploring shifts in value, hue, saturation, and temperature. 

Follow the Project #5 : Phase 3 Guidelines

BY THE END OF CLASS:

  • You and your partner should have completed Steps 1-4 of the Project #5 : Phase 3 Guidelines and should be prepared to start working independently at home.
  • Create a work schedule. You will have two classes to complete this Freestudy. Do not rush, but do not procrastinate. Use this project to demonstrate what you have learned in this course thus far.
  • Come to an agreement about your respective color choices and shared contrasting color.
  • Experiment with color palettes to demonstrate your color interactions and relationships.
  • Decide on the layout of your compositions. ie: How will the figure and ground relate? How will the layouts of the paired compositions relate?
  • Here is a great example of one student’s documentation of his  Design Process for this project.

Student Examples:

Homework

Free-study Work DUE:

  • Complete Steps 1-4
  • Begin Step 5. Create “mockups” of your final work in Illustrator, Photoshop, or with colored pencils, markers, cut paper, paint. These should communicate your intentions for the color, form, and content of your free-study to the class.
  • YOU WILL BE CONTINUING FREESTUDY WORK NEXT CLASS. Come prepared to work.
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Class 26 | FIELD TRIP!

December 4th, 2017

Materials Needed:

  • Notebook/sketchbook
  • Pen/Pencil
  • Camera

FIELD TRIP TO NEW LAB

Arrive on time to class. We will leave promptly from N1127 at 2:30pm.

  • You will not be able to enter the Navy Yard security gate without me.
    BE ON TIME or contact a fellow student to arrange to meet us at the Cumberland Street Gate.

Girelle Guzman, New Lab Director of Time & Space, will be giving us a tour. Please be respectful and attentive. She will be providing a history of New Lab and a tour of the workspace.

new-lab-workspace-

New Lab workspace

DUE ON THURSDAY:

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Class 25 | Critique & Color Interaction

November 30, 2017

What’s due?

  • All parts of Project #4 should be complete (on blog and turned in) at the start of class.
  • Post your Combined Saturation Freestudy (Swiss-style band poster) to the blog, ready to present.

Discussion/Lecture

Visual Perception:

Color Interaction: 

  • Simultaneous Contrast: When two colors come into contact, the contrast intensifies the difference between them.
    • Example #1: When a middle gray is surrounded by dark gray it appears lighter than when surrounded by a lighter gray.
    • Example #2: Yellow-green surrounded by green appears more yellow, but if surrounded by yellow appears more green.
    • Example #3: Complementary hues have the most striking effect– blue is most intense when seen next to orange.
    • Example #4: Gray or white next to a pure hue, like red, will cause the gray to take on its complement, green.
  • Complementary Colors and After Images: After image is an optical effect that is induced from color combinations. If a color and a neutral gray placed side by side the gray will appear tinted with the complement. Due to the influence of afterimage, our brains try to balance the color with its complement.
    • Example: When we see a blue-violet circle on a green square, there is a small ring of red-violet at the intersection of the background and the circle. The reddish afterimage of the green is blended with the blue of the circle to create a red-violet illusion. If the same color is placed on a gray background, the circle appears bluer.
  • Optical Mixing: When a field of color is composed of small, disparate points of color, the mind fuses the colors into a comprehensible whole.
    • Example #1: Four-color printing process uses overlapping dot screens of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black to produce a wide range of hues.
    • Example #2 : Digital imaging on the computer screen uses tiny pixels of color to produce gradations of hue.
    • Example #3: A mosaic or drawing uses tiny pieces of stone or drawn marks to create a field of color.

Josef Albers: The Interaction of Color

  • Josef Albers was a student of the Bauhaus in Germany and color educator at the Black Mountain College and Yale. His experiments in color relationships are used throughout the world in the study of design and color.
  • Classic experiments involved making one color appear as two by placing it within two different background colors.

Simultaneous Contrast References:

Lab 1

Using the iPads distributed in class:

  • Read Section IV & VI and create your own color interaction examples using the Interaction of Color app.
  • Once you have explored the Interaction of Color app, play a few games of Huedoku

Lab 2

Project #5 : Color Interaction Pairings

Goal: Create four groups of paired interaction color studies– making 1 color appear as 2 different colors by changing its surrounding color. Each group consists of 2 pairs.
The small square should be the same for each pair.

  • Each PAIR consists of 2 interactions.
    • Group 1-Shifting Value: 2 pairs of achromatic gray studies will explore interactions by shifting value.
    • Group 2-Shifting Value (with color): 2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting value (with color)
    • Group 3-Shifting Hue, Not Value: 2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting hue, but not value.
    • Group 4-Shifting Hue and Value: 2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting hue and value.
    • Extra Credit: 2 pairs of color studies will attempt to make two different colors look as a like as possible.

Limits:

  • Make large squares 2×2″ and small squares 1/2 x 1/2″.
  • The small squares will sit in the middle of the large squares and should be the same for each pair.
  • Two pairing per page, per group.

Process:

Group 1: Shifting Value
2 pairs of studies will explore interactions by shifting value. Using achromatic grays, vary the value of the large square to alter the perceived value of the small square. The small square should be the same value for each pair. Sample PSD: colorinteractions_valueonly

grayscale

Group 2 : Shifting Value in Color
2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting value (with color).

  • Example Photoshop file
  • Create (2) color interaction pairs by shifting value in color.
  • Choose one hue as your small, center square color and attempt to make this one color appear as two by varying the surrounding color in the larger square.
    • Make large squares 2×2″ and small squares 1/2 x 1/2″.
    • The small squares will sit in the middle of the large squares and should be the same for each pair.
  • For each pair choose one background hue and adjust the value by adding white or black. Or choose another hue that is of contrasting VALUE (a hue that is lighter or darker).
  • EXAMPLE: The value is altered by adding white to the left square and the complement or black to the right square. The center square appears darker on the left and lighter on the right.

    Blues

    Blues/Violets

  • EXAMPLE:  The slightly muted yellow on the left and the chromatic gray on the right alter the perceived value of the center square.

    Yellows

    Yellows

  • Work with different surrounding hues, altering the perceived value at all levels of saturation (chromatic grays, muted and prismatic) until you achieve a perceptual difference between center squares.

Group 3 : Shifting Hue, Not Value
2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting hue, not value.

  • Create (2) color interaction pairs by shifting hue, but not value.
  • Use this example photoshop file.
  • Choose one hue as your small, center square color and attempt to make this one color appear as two by varying the surrounding color in the larger square.
    • Try to keep the perceived value of both the background square and the center square the same. The shift should only be visible as a shift in color/hue in the center square.
    • For the large background squares choose hues that share similar value, but are a different in hue (ie: complements work well to achieve this type of shift).
    • The background hues will cause the center square to appear as if it’s a different hue. This may be a subtle shift in temperature (warm or cool), but observable.

Example: The center square on the right appears reddish-violet when surrounded by green (complement of red) and the one on the left appears more bluish-violet when surrounded by orange (complement of blue). Notice the value doesn’t change.

hue_interactions

adjustments in hue, not value

hue_interactions_bw

adjustments in hue, not value (seen in grayscale)

Group 4 : Shifting Hue and Value
2 pairs of color studies will explore interactions by shifting hue and value.

  • Create (2) color interaction pairs by shifting hue and value.
  • Choose one hue as your small, center square color and attempt to make this one color appear as two by varying the surrounding color in the larger square.
    • Make large squares 2×2″ and small squares 1/2 x 1/2″.
    • The small squares will sit in the middle of the large squares and should be the same for each pair.
    • For the large background squares choose hues that are different in value and also quite different in hue. The background hues will cause the center square to appear as if it’s a different hue and also a different value. This may be subtle, but observable.

Example: The center square on the left appears both bluer and darker when surrounded by yellow-orange. The center square on the right appears both lighter and more reddish when surrounded by blue-green.

Hue & Value Interactions

Hue & Value Interactions

Hue & Value Interactions

Hue & Value Interactions (grayscale to show value)

Presentation:

  • Save as PNG.
  • Each group of 2 pairs should be posted to class site in one post (see Project #5 – Phase 2), with captions indicating each Group. Use the Gallery feature to present these 4 images.

    Interaction Pairings

    Group 1 Shifting Value

HOMEWORK

FIELD TRIP TO NEW LAB, MY STUDIO, ON MONDAY!

  • Please be on time to class, so we can leave promptly from N1127 at 2:30pm.
    new-lab-workspace-

DUE NEXT THURSDAY:

  • Project #5: Phase 1 and 2 are due.
  • Post to blog, we will critique in class.

 

Download PDF

Class 24 | Balance, Symmetry & Freestudy

November 27, 2017

Materials Needed:

Download and bring to class on your flash/thumb drive:

Also bring:

  • Your group’s cross-sensory phrase and color scheme.
  • If you have a laptop with Illustrator on it, please bring it.

Continue reading

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Class 23 | Saturation Free Study

November 20, 2017

What’s due?

  • All Saturation Studies are due. These should be cleanly and professionally mounted, ready to turn in.
  • If you have a laptop with Adobe Illustrator installed and prefer to work on your own computer, please bring it.

Critique/Discussion:

  • All Color Studies. Present all three saturation studies (Chromatic Gray, Muted, and Prismatic) around the room.
  • Check out this article about Mindset.

Grade and Standing

  • Project #3 and late project submission grades have been posted. See me with questions or for additional feedback.
  • If you have not posted Phase 4: Deliver posts for Projects 1-3 and your Midterm post, or if you are not sure how you are doing in the class, please see me.

Continue reading

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Class 22 | Muted & Prismatic Color Studies

November 16, 2017

DUE:

  • Chromatic Gray Study (Phase 2: Define)
    • Should be cleanly and professionally presented– mounted on bristol.

Materials Needed

  • all gouache paints from Supply List
  • brushes, water containers, palette
  • ruler, t-square, exacto knife
  • pencils
  • 9×12″ bristol and scrap bristol

Share

“It seems that perfection is attained, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing more to take away..” – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Critique

  • Present your Chromatic Gray Study
  • And your Color Wheel Freestudy if you didn’t present last class.

Lecture / Discussion

Review:

Questions + Outcomes:

  • How does a saturation affect the mood of a composition?
  • How does saturation affect usability?
  • How is a focal point / area of emphasis / contrast created with saturation?

Muted Color:

Muted Color in Graphic Design Trends and History:

  • Graphic Design: Pastels and Muted Palettes
  • Web Design: Muted Color Palettes
    • here and here.
    • UX design: Flat and Muted
      “User experience design (UX, UXD, UED or XD) is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product.”
    • Flat 2.0? A marriage between minimalism and skeuomorphism.
      “Much of Flat 2.0 is rooted in design theory. (If you want to get back to basics and do something that works, theory is always a good place to start.) Flat 2.0 uses a specific style to create hierarchy for a flow through the design. Color palettes are distinct and constructed with purpose. There is a focus on organization, spacing and clarity of elements. Every element in the design is supposed to be simple, but highly understandable.”

  • Film/Video: Muted Color Palettes

Prismatic / Saturated Color

Saturated Color in Graphic Design Trends and History:

  • Swiss style (International Typographic Style – use of grids, saturated color, sans-serif typography, and clean hierarchy of content and layout, often include large photographs with simple and minimal typography.) IMAGES
  • Minimalism (Geometric shapes, few elements, bright colors, and clean lines dominate) IMAGES
  • History of Minimalism

Lab

Muted and Prismatic Color Studies:

(NOTE: ONCE THE CONCEPTS ARE UNDERSTOOD, IT SHOULD NOT TAKE MORE THAN A COUPLE HOURS TO COMPLETE THESE EXERCISES.)

Prep:

  • Prepare 2 pieces of 6×6″ square bristol using your pencil, ruler and exacto knife. This will be used for presentation only.
  • You are making collages and will paint on scraps of bristol first, arrange, and then assemble/glue down on your 6×6″ square.
  • Choose the same types of shape you used for your last set of studies (squares, stripes, zebra, camouflage, etc.)
  • You may have some tests from the last study that were too saturated to fit into the Chromatic Gray category-  feel free to use them for these studies.

Muted Color Studies BROAD VALUE / BROAD HUE:

GOAL: Make a 6×6″ gouache collage using at least 12 shapes with a BROAD VALUE range of muted colors.

All shapes should be painted with MUTED colors from a BROAD value range (from light and dark) and a BROAD range of hues (R, O, Y, G, B, V). The white paper is not considered a color – the entire surface of your 6×6″ paper should be covered with painted shapes.

  • Starting with R, O, Y, G, B,  or V,  add varying amounts of complementary color and/or white to achieve a range of muted colors.
    Muted Colors http://www.paintdrawpaint.com/

    Change saturation with complements
    http://www.paintdrawpaint.com/

    Add white to change the saturation. http://www.dsource.in/

    Add white to change the saturation and value.
    http://www.dsource.in/

  • Arrange your shapes until you achieve a unified composition and then carefully glue down your pieces.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

  • Yellow, Yellow-Orange, and Yellow-Green can easily loose saturation when darkened and become Chromatic Grays.
  • Violet, Red-Violet and Blue-Violet can loose saturation when lightened and become Chromatic Grays.
  • Muted Yellow, Yellow-Orange and Yellow-Green can be used to create light muted colors.
  • Muted Violet and Blue can be used to create dark muted colors.
  • Muted Red and Green can be used to create middle-key muted colors.

Prismatic Color Studies – BROAD VALUE / BROAD HUE:

GOAL: Make a 6×6″ gouache collage using at least 12 shapes with a BROAD VALUE range of muted colors.

All shapes should be painted with PRISMATIC colors from a BROAD value range (from light and dark) and a BROAD range of hues (R, O, Y, G, B, V). The white paper is not considered a color – the entire surface of your 6×6″ paper should be covered with painted shapes.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

  • Prismatic colors are those that are as pure a hue as possible using paints. Essentially these are the colors that can be seen when white light goes through a prism.
  • Please work with primary (red, yellow, blue) and secondary (orange, violet, and green) hues and tertiary hues (red-orange, red-violet, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-violet, blue-green).
  • Do not use browns, blacks, grays, white or any premixed color.
  • The value of your prismatic colors is determined by its place on the color wheel, not by adding darks or whites. Squint your eyes and look at the color wheel. The lightest colors are yellows, the darkest colors are violets.

HOMEWORK

Due:

Finish ALL Saturation Studies: (Must be complete and mounted upon arrival!)
Make sure each composition is neatly mounted and protected with tracing paper.

Phase 2: Define

  • Chromatic Gray Study
  • Muted Color Study
  • Prismatic Color Study

Documentation and Feedback

  • Create a new blog post called Saturation Studies: Phase 2
  • Add a gallery with all three studies. Don’t forget to caption!
  • Include a description of each study and what you learned.
  • Include the hours that you worked on this part of the project.
  • Don’t forget to comment on at least 1 other student’s posts.
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Class 21 | Chromatic Gray Color Studies

November 13, 2017

Materials Needed

  • gouache paints from Supply List
  • brushes
  • ruler
  • t-square
  • pencils
  • scissors, Exacto knife
  • drafting or removable tape
  • 9×12″ bristol or scrap bristol
  • color wheel

Show and Tell?

  • Field Trip reflections
  • Anything else?

Critique

  • Color Wheel FreeStudy

Lecture: Saturation

Color Concepts and Vocabulary:

  • Saturation: Refers to the relative purity of a color.
    saturationscale
  • Prismatic Color: As pure a hue as possible with pigments/paint.
  • Muted Color: Colors that lie just outside the prismatic zone, created by adding black, white, gray or a complement of a hue.
  • Chromatic Gray: Grays that exhibit a subtle, but discernible hue; created by adding larger amounts the complement and white.
  • Luminosity: Refers to hue’s inherent light; lighter colors are more luminous than darker colors, but a lighter color is not necessarily more saturated.
  • Primary Triad: yellow, blue and red, form an equilateral triangle.
  • Secondary Triad: orange, green and violet; evenly spaced between the primaries; are mixed from primaries (example: red + yellow = orange)
  • Complements: colors opposite on the color wheel.
    In the traditional color wheel:

    • Red and Green are complements
    • Yellow and Violet are complements
    • Blue and Orange are complements

Why is understanding and using Saturation important for communication?

Lab: Chromatic Gray Study

(NOTE: ONCE THE CONCEPTS ARE UNDERSTOOD, IT SHOULD NOT TAKE MORE THAN A COUPLE HOURS TO COMPLETE THESE EXERCISES.)

Prep:

  • Prepare a piece of 6×6″ square bristol using your pencil, ruler and exacto knife. This will be used for presentation only. You are making collages, so paint on scraps of bristol first, arrange, and then assemble/glue down on your 6×6″ square.
  • Choose one of the following shape types, or invent your own!
    • zebra stripes
    • camouflage
    • squares

GOAL: Make a 6×6″ gouache collage using at least six shapes with a BROAD VALUE range of chromatic grays.

All shapes should be chromatic gray (grays that exhibit a subtle, but discernible hue) with a BROAD value range (from light and dark) from a BROAD range of hues (R, O, Y, G, B, V). The white paper is not considered a color – the entire surface of your 6×6″ paper should be covered with paint.

  • Use scrap pieces of bristol to create your painted paper shapes. Cut these out with scissors or exacto knife and assemble into a composition.
  • Starting with a small amount of a Prismatic Color (Red, Blue, Yellow), add the complementary color (Green, Orange, Violet) to create a range of chromatic dark grays. Paint a shape with each dark chromatic gray.

    Dark Chromatic Grays http://www.paintdrawpaint.com/

    Dark Chromatic Grays http://www.paintdrawpaint.com

  • Then experiment by mixing your complements with more of one hue than the other.
    (Example: mix 30% red with 70% green for a greenish chromatic gray.)
  • Then add white to each of your dark chromatic grays to create a range of lighter gray values.
  • All the grays (light, midtone, dark) should have a subtle, discernible hue, but should lie closer to the center of the saturation spectrum (achromatic gray) than the end (prismatic color).

Mounting/Presentation: Arrange your shapes until you achieve unified compositions and then carefully glue down your composition on your 6×6″ square. Then mount on a clean, fresh piece of bristol. Pay close attention to margins, craft, and cleanliness.

HINTS:

  • Lighten the value of chromatic grays by adding white to your chromatic darks.
    Example: To create a light chromatic gray in with a subtle yellowish hue, mix more Yellow with Violet and mix a small amount into a large amount to white.
  • To prevent streaking, thoroughly mix paint before applying, only adding enough water to get the consistency of cream/yogurt. Paint should be flat and opaque. No paper should show through.
  • At the end of  your painting session, apply extra paint to scrap bristol for future use. Don’t waste your paint.

DEMO

  • Create a range of chromatic dark grays by mixing unequal amounts of complementary colors.
    • Red chromatic gray: mix more Red with Green.
    • Green chromatic gray: mix more Green with Red
    • Blue chromatic gray: mix more Blue with Orange
    • Orange chromatic gray: mix more Orange with Green
    • Yellow chromatic gray: mix more Yellow with Violet
    • Violet chromatic gray: mix more Violet with Yellow
  • Next alter the VALUE of your six chromatic darks by adding a range white.

HOMEWORK

  • Finish Chromatic Gray Study (Phase 2: Define)
    • Finished Studies should be cleanly and professionally presented– mounted TOGETHER on 14×17″ bristol or independently on 9×12″ bristol.
  • Materials: Same as today!
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